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What Would You Say if...: Responding to Microaggressions, Bias, and Other Nonsense

Conference paperInproceedings
Lewis, Colleen M and Ashcraft, Catherine and McMullen, Kyla
In Proceedings of the 49th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 2018
Publication year: 2018

Abstract:

Many SIGCSE attendees are committed to inclusive teaching practices and creating an inclusive culture within their classrooms; yet, advocating for and sustaining these initiatives may require having difficult conversations with our colleagues and students. Understandably, many faculty are unsure about how to talk about sensitive topics such as race and gender with their colleagues and students. Research suggests that practicing some of these difficult conversations is essential to achieve the goals of inclusive teaching and culture. Most SIGCSE attendees probably use active learning throughout their teaching, but we rarely see active learning at SIGCSE – let’s try it! In this interactive session, attendees will learn strategies for responding to bias in academic settings. Attendees will then practice those strategies in small groups. This will be facilitated by playing two rounds of a research-based game learning approach developed by the NSF project CSTeachingTips.org (#1339404), which has been tested in group of 200 teaching assistants. This is the fifth iteration of the game-learning approach and all attendees will receive a printed copy of the game and a link to download and print more copies.

Mindtrack: Using brain-computer interface to translate emotions into music

Conference paperInproceedings
Desai, Bhaveek and Chen, Benjamin and Sirocchi, Sofia and McMullen, Kyla A
In 2018 International Conference on Digital Arts, Media and Technology (ICDAMT), 2018
Publication year: 2018

Abstract:

The present work describes Mindtrack, a Brain-Computer Musical Interface that uses real-time brainwave data to allow a user to expressively shape progressive music. In Mindtrack, the user wears an electroencephalogram (EEG) EMO-TIV Insight headset. The raw EEG data is converted into brain wave components, followed by high-level EEG characteristics (such as emotion) that are used to control the music’s tempo and key sig-nature. Other musical parameters, such as harmony, rhythm and melody are specified by the user. Tempo and key are calculated according to the emotion detected from the EEG device. In Mindtrack, the brain is the sole instrument used to translate emotions to music. Mindtrack has the potential to increase the quality of life for persons with physical impairments who still desire to express themselves musically. Furthermore, Mindtrack can be used for music therapy, recreation, and rehabilitation.

Five Slides About: Abstraction, Arrays, Uncomputability, Networks, Digital Portfolios, and the CS Principles Explore Performance Task

Conference paperInproceedings
Lewis, Colleen M and Aaronson, Leslie and Allatta, Eric and Dodds, Zachary and Forbes, Jeffrey and McMullen, Kyla and Sahami, Mehran
In Proceedings of the 49th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 2018
Publication year: 2018

Abstract:

SIGCSE is packed with teaching insights and inspiration. However, we get these insights and inspiration from hearing our colleagues talk about their teaching. Why not just watch them teach? This session does exactly that. Each of six exceptional educators will be given ten minutes to teach the audience something. After this, the moderator will draw the attention of the audience to particular pedagogical moves that the instruction included. Attendees can see a new approach to introducing a topic or a new pedagogical move. No matter what, we expect attendees will be taking ideas from this session directly back to their teaching! The format is based upon a practice in chemistry of sharing” Five Slides About,” which introduce a topic in a novel or concise way (https://www. ionicviper. org/types/five_slides_about). Resources from each of the presenters will be shared on the website CSTeachingTips. org.

The Effects of Training on Real-Time Localization of Headphone-Rendered, Spatially Processed Sounds

Conference paperInproceedings
McMullen, KA and Wakefield, Gregory H
In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2017
Publication year: 2017

Abstract:

Although static localization performance in auditory displays is known to substantially improve as a listener spends more time in the environment, the impact of real-time interactive movement on these tasks is not yet well understood. Accordingly, a training procedure was developed and evaluated to address this question. In a set of experiments, listeners searched for and marked the locations of five virtually spatialized sound sources. The task was performed with and without training. Finally, the listeners performed a second search and mark task to assess the impacts of training. The results indicate that the training procedure maintained or significantly improved localization accuracy. In addition, localization performance did not improve for listeners who did not complete the training procedure.

The Effects of 3D Audio on Hologram Localization in Augmented Reality Environments

Conference paperInproceedings
Arce, Terek and Fuchs, Henry and McMullen, Kyla
In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2017
Publication year: 2017

Abstract:

Currently available augmented reality systems have a narrow field of view, giving users only a small window to look through to find holograms in the environment. The challenge for developers is to direct users’ attention to holograms outside this window. To alleviate this field of view constraint, most research has focused on hardware improvements to the head mounted display. However, incorporating 3D audio cues into programs could also aid users in this localization task. This paper investigates the effectiveness of 3D audio on hologram localization. A comparison of 3D audio, visual, and mixed-mode stimuli shows that users are able to localize holograms significantly faster under conditions that include 3D audio. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the use of 3D audio in localization tasks using augmented reality systems. The results provide a basis for the incorporation of 3D audio in augmented reality applications.

Quantitatively Validating Subjectively Selected HRTFs for Elevation and Front-Back Distinction

Conference paperInproceedings
Fan, Ziqi and Wan, Yunhao and McMullen, Kyla
In {booktitle}, 2016
Publication year: 2016

Abstract:

As 3D audio becomes more commonplace to enhance auditory environments, designers are faced with the challenge of choosing HRTFs for listeners that provide proper audio cues. Subjective selection is a low-cost alternative to expensive HRTF measurement, however little is known concerning whether the preferred HRTFs are similar or if users exhibit random behavior in this task. In addition, PCA (principal component analysis) can be used to decompose HRTFs in representative features, however little is known concerning whether the features have a relevant perceptual basis. 12 listeners completed a subjective selection experiment in which they judged the perceptual quality of 14 HRTFs in terms of elevation, and front-back distinction. PCA was used to decompose the HRTFs and create an HRTF similarity metric. The preferred HRTFs were significantly more similar to each other, the preferred and non-preferred HRTFs were significantly less similar to each other, and in the case of front-back distinction the non-preferred HRTFs were significantly more similar to each other.

Temporal reliability of subjectively selected head-related transfer functions (hrtfs) in a non-eliminating discrimination task

Conference paper
Wan, Yunhao and Fan, Ziqi and McMullen, Kyla
Audio Engineering Society Convention 139
Publication year: 2015

Abstract:

The emergence of commercial virtual reality devices has reinvigorated the need for research in realistic audio for virtual environments. Realistic virtual audio is often realized through the use of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) that are costly to measure and individualistic to each listener, thus making their use unscalable. Subjective selection allows a listener to pick their own HRTF from a database of premeasured HRTFs. While this is a more scalable option further research is needed to examine listeners’ consistency in choosing their own HRTFs. The present study extends the current subjective selection research by quantifying the reliability of subjectively selected HRTFs by 12 participants over time in a non-eliminating perceptual discrimination task.

Gesture-based Sound Localization and Manipulation

Conference paperInproceedings
Ranjan, Shashank and McMullen, Kyla
In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction, 2015
Publication year: 2015

Abstract:

With current advancements in computer vision depth sensing technologies, gestures provide a new means of computer interaction. 3D audio research has gained significant ground in accurately localizing sound in 3D space, but not much work has been conducted relating to modes of user interaction in such applications. In this paper, gestures are used as a more natural way of interacting with 3D spatial audio applications, specifically for the localization and manipulation of sound sources.

Evaluating the consistency of subjectively selected head-related transfer functions (hrtfs) over time

Conference paperInproceedings
Wan, Yunhao and Zare, Alireza and McMullen, Kyla
In Audio Engineering Society Conference: 55th International Conference: Spatial Audio, 2014
Publication year: 2014

Abstract:

Virtual auditory environments (VAEs) are created by filtering digital sounds through HRTFs (Head-Related Transfer Functions) such that they convey a spatial location to the listener. The most accurate HRTFs are obtained by direct individual acoustic measurement, however this is a costly and time-consuming process. Subjective selection arises as a low cost alternative to obtaining customized HRTFs, however, this manner of selection is perceptual in nature, and a user’s choices may change over time. The validity of using subjective selection for HRTF customization relies on the consistency of the HRTFs selected by listeners. The present work assesses how listener’s subjectively selected HRTFs may change over time. The results suggested that listeners are able to select adequate HRTFs in one session, without the need for additional sessions.

Effects of Visual Augmentation on the Memory of Spatial Sounds

Conference paperInproceedings
McMullen, Kyla A and Wakefield, Gregory A
In {booktitle}, 2014
Publication year: 2014

Abstract:

Spatial audio displays are created by processing digital sounds such that they convey a spatial location to the listener. These displays are used as a supplementary channel when the visual channel is overloaded or when visual cues are absent. This technology can be used to aid decision-makers in complex, dynamic tasks such as urban combat simulation, flight simulations, mission rehearsals, air traffic control, military command and control, and emergency services. Accurate spatial sound rendering is a primary focus in this research area, with spatial sound memory receiving less attention. The present study assesses the effects of visual augmentation on spatial sound location and identity memory. The chosen visual augmentations were a Cartesian and polar grid. The work presented in this paper discovered that the addition of visual augmentation improved location and identity memory without degrading search time performance.

Design of an accessible and portable system for soccer players with visual impairments

Conference paperInproceedings
Zare, Alireza and McMullen, Kyla and Gardner-McCune, Christina
In Proceedings of the extended abstracts of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems, 2014
Publication year: 2014

Abstract:

Many people with visual impairments actively play soccer, however the task of making the game accessible is met with significant challenges. These challenges include: the need to constantly talk to signify location and detecting the positions of silent objects on the field. Our work aims to discover methods to help persons with visual impairments play soccer more efficiently and safely. The proposed system uses headphone-rendered spatial audio, an on-person computer, and sensors to create 3D sound that represents the objects on the field in real-time. This depiction of the field will help players to more accurately detect the locations of objects and people on the field. The present work describes the design of such a system and discusses perceptual challenges. Broadly, our work aims to discover ways to enable people with visual impairments to detect the position of moving objects, which will allow them to feel empowered in their personal lives and give them the confidence to navigate more independently.

3D sound memory in virtual environments

Conference paperInproceedings
McMullen, Kyla A and Wakefield, Gregory H
In 2014 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 2014
Publication year: 2014

Abstract:

Virtual auditory environments (VAEs) are created by processing digital sounds such that they convey a 3D location to the listener. This technology has the potential to augment systems in which an operator tracks the positions of targets. Prior work has established that listeners can locate sounds in VAEs, however less is known concerning listener memory for virtual sounds. In this study, three experimental tasks assessed listener recall of sound positions and identities, using free and cued recall, with one or more delays. Overall, accuracy degrades as listeners recall the environment, however when using free recall, listeners exhibited less degradation.

The effects of attenuation modeling on spatial sound search

Conference paperInproceedings
McMullen, Kyla A and Wakefield, Gregory H
In {booktitle}, 2013
Publication year: 2013

Abstract:

Virtual spatial audio often utilizes the inverse-square law to model the relationship between intensity and distance for sources in the far-field. The present study explores the potential advantages of an “inverse-Nth” law, where N is greater than two, for dense, noisy environments where sources are distributed over a wide range of distances, or potentially sparse environments where the distance varies little. The findings of the study show significantly improved listener search and recall performance, without affecting sound search time, when using an inverse-8th law.

Effects of plane mapping on sound localization in a virtual auditory environment

Conference paperInproceedings
McMullen, Kyla A and Wakefield, Gregory H
In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 2013
Publication year: 2013

Abstract:

Virtual auditory environments (VAEs) can be used to communicate spatial information, with sound sources representing the location of objects. A critical factor in this type of immersive system is the degree to which the participant can interact with the virtual environment. Our prior work has demonstrated that listeners can successfully locate virtual spatialized sounds, delivered over headphones, in a VAE using a mouse and screen to navigate the virtual world. The screen indicates the avatars position on the vertical plane. The present study seeks to determine the effects of plane mapping on listener performance. In the horizontal-plane interface, the listener used a WACOM tablet and pen to navigate the VAE on the horizontal plane. Results suggest that there is no significant performance difference when locating a single sound source. In the multi-source context, it was observed that the time taken to locate the first sound was significantly larger than the time taken to locate the remaining sounds.

Alternate Pathways to Careers in Computing: Recruiting and Retaining Women Students

Conference paperInproceedings
Daily, S.B. and Gardner-Mccune, C. and Gilbert, J. and Hall, P.W. and McMullen, K. and Remy, S.L. and Woodard, D.
In ASEE Annual Conference, 2013
Publication year: 2013

Searching for Sources from a Fixed Point in a Virtual Auditory Environment

Conference paperInproceedings
Roginska, Agnieszka and Wakefield, Gregory H and McMullen, Kyla
In {booktitle}, 2011
Publication year: 2011

Abstract:

Interaction between the listener and their environment in a spatial auditory display plays an important role in creating better situational awareness, resolving front/back and up/down confusions, and improving localization. Prior studies with 6DOF interaction suggest that using either a head tracker or a mouse-driven interface yields similar performance during a navigation and search task in a virtual auditory environment. In this paper, we present a study that compares listener performance in a virtual auditory environment under a static mode condition, and two dynamic conditions (head tracker and mouse) using orientation-only interaction. Results reveal tradeoffs among the conditions and interfaces. While the fastest response time was observed in the static mode, both dynamic conditions resulted in significantly reduced front/back confusions and improved localization accuracy. Training effects and search strategies are discussed.

Performance of Using Orientation Search during an Auditory Navigation and Search Task Using Avatar, Natural, and Static Mediations

Conference paperInproceedings
Roginska, Agnieszka and Wakefield, GH and McMullen, K
In International Conference on Auditory Display, 2011
Publication year: 2011

Effects of interface type on navigation in a virtual spatial auditory environment

Conference paperInproceedings
Roginska, Agnieszka and Wakefield, Gregory H and Santoro, Thomas S and McMullen, Kyla
In {booktitle}, 2010
Publication year: 2010

Abstract:

In the design of spatial auditory displays, listener interactivity can promote greater immersion, better situational awareness, reduced front/back confusion, improved localization, and greater externalization. Interactivity between the listener and their environment has traditionally been achieved using a head tracker interface. However, trackers are expensive, sensitive to calibration, and may not be appropriate for use in all physical environments. Interactivity can be achieved using a number of alternative interfaces. This study compares learning rates and performance in a single-source auditory search task for a headtracker and a mouse/keyboard interface within a single source and multi-source context.

This is who I am and this is what I do: demystifying the process of designing culturally authentic technology

Conference paper
Eugene, Wanda and Hatley, Leshell and McMullen, Kyla and Brown, Quincy and Rankin, Yolanda and Lewis, Sheena
In International Conference on Internationalization, Design and Global Development, 2009
Publication year: 2009

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to bridge the gap between existing frameworks for the design of culturally relevant educational technology. Models and guidelines that provide potential frameworks for designing culturally authentic learning environment are explained and transposed into one comprehensive design framework, understanding that integrating culture into the design of educational technology promotes learning and a more authentic user experience. This framework establishes principles that promote a holistic approach to design.

Relationship Learning Software: Design and Assessment

Conference paper
McMullen, Kyla A and Wakefield, Gregory H
In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 2009
Publication year: 2009
Abstract:

Interface designers have been studying how to construct graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for a number of years, however adults are often the main focus of these studies. Children constitute a unique user group, making it necessary to design software specifically for them. For this study, several interface design frameworks were combined to synthesize a framework for designing educational software for children. Two types of learning, relationships and categories, are the focus of the present study because of their importance in early-child learning as well as standardized testing. For this study the educational game Melo’s World was created as an experimental platform. The experiments assessed the performance differences found when including or excluding subsets of interface design features, specifically aesthetic and behavioral features. Software that contains aesthetic, but lack behavioral features, was found to have the greatest positive impact on a child’s learning of thematic relationships.